Cell biology is a scientific discipline that studies cell physiological properties, cell structure, cell organelles, interactions of cell with the environment, cell life cycle, cell division and cell death at microscopic and molecular level. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences. Research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and developmental biology.
Plant cell biology studies the functions of different organelles
Chloroplast – key organelle for photosynthesis
Cytoplasm – contents of the main fluid-filled space inside cells
Cytoskeleton – protein filaments inside cells
Endoplasmic reticulum – major site of membrane protein synthesis
Golgi apparatus – site of protein glycosylation in the endomembrane system
Lipid bilayer – fundamental organizational structure of cell membranes
Mitochondrion – major energy-producing organelle by releasing it in the form of ATP
Nucleus – holds most of the DNA of eukaryotic cells and controls all cellular activities
Organelle – term used for major subcellular structures
Ribosome – RNA and protein complex required for protein synthesis in cells
Vesicle – small membrane-bounded spheres inside cells
Plant cell biology also studies the basic cellular processes
Active transport and Passive transport of molecules via channels, transporters, and pumps
Cell movement – pollen tube, stomatal opening and closure
Cell signalling – Regulation of cell behaviour by signal molecules
Metabolism – glycolysis, respiration, Photosynthesis
DNA repair and Cell death
Internal cellular structures
Plant cell biology research employs many techniques and methods
Optical Microscope, Transmission Electron Microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope, Fluorescence Microscopy, Confocal Microscopy, Flow Cytometric Analysis, Extraction and Assay of Protein from Single Plant Cells, Membrane Protein Purification, Protein—Protein Interaction assay, Protein Synthesis and Transport in Protoplasts, Particle Bombardment of Plant Protoplasts, Preparation and Transformation of Protoplasts, Functional Analysis of Genes in transformed Protoplasts, Cell-Specific Ablation in Plants, Expression and Localization of Plant Proteins in Baculoviral and Bacterial Systems and Yeast, Synthesis and Heterologous Expression of Plant Transport Proteins in Xenopus Oocytes and Insect Cells, Voltage and Patch Clamp Techniques and Ion-Selective Microelectrode Techniques.
Australian plant science is fortunate to have many laboratories and several centres with excellent facilities for diverse topics in plant cell biology research.